PSS-Geo AS provides geophysical services for any tipe of velocity building:

#### Velocity for Migrations

PSDM-Model building / ”Hybrid Waveform Inversion”

- Initial Model Building:

•Integrating sonic logs and check shots to generate the well interval velocities. Ensure correct depth in well position

•Building the initial velocity model by kriging and guiding interpolation of well interval velocities by horizons

•Building an anisotropy model that flatten the gathers in the well positions

- Acoustic or prestack amplitude inversion followed by low frequent correction back to initial model to ensure traveltime consistency

- PSDM Iterations

•Updating the Vertical Velocity Model by horizon - or grid based full offset tomographic traveltime inversion. Mixing Global Update and Hybrid Updating

•Amplitude inversion and correction for every iteration

- Depth migration model building and model verification sequence, by Juri Muzi

#### Velocity for Depth Conversion

As part of seismic processing delivery, PSS-Geo delivers constructed interval velocity cubes for depth conversion. PSS-Geo uses internal techniques which include adjustment of seismic velocity with horizontal component and Check Shot correction seismic full component cube. We make sure that wells are tied to seismic and check shot correlated P-wave are used at well position, while between wells velocity anisotropy are guided by interpreted horizons, normally, supped by clients.

Depth conversion should be exact at the well positions, and between the wells the error should normally be within 5 meter.

#### Velocity High Resolution (WARP and/or Dynamic Auto Correlation)

Pseudo-P-wave estimation from seismic data prior Drilling

The convenient algorithm, which increase certainties!High-Resolution Velocity estimation algorithm that can be used to predict possible reservoirs, lithology and geohazard situations.

Interval stacking velocity Interval HighRes Velocity

#### Stacking Velocity

2D interval stacking velocity sections and their 3D crossing analysis.

PSS-Geo dedicates enough time for accurate velocity field construction. Processing data we carefully analyze geology. Most of the time we hand pick stacking velocity, especially in difficult geological areas.